JLex directives: This includes macro definitions (described below). See the JLex Reference Manual for more information about this part of the specification. ~appel/modern/java/CUP/ □. A ready-to-use JLex spec. (*.lex). CUP spec. (*.cup). Lexical analyzer. (*.java). Nodes of the. The next section of this manual describes installation procedures for JFlex. If you never worked with JLex or just want to compare a JLex and a.

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Turns column counting on. In particular, where UTF is used, a sequence consisting of a leading surrogate followed by a trailing surrogate shall be handled as a single code point in matching.

A few words on performance This section gives some empirical results about the speed of JFlex generated scanners in comparison to those generated by JLex, compares a JFlex scanner with a handwritten one, and presents some tips on how to make your specification produce a faster scanner.

JFlex always recognises both styles of platform dependent line terminators.

Since you often have a bunch of expressions with the same start conditions, JFlex allows the same abbreviation as the Unix tool flex: JFlex attempts to report these cases as errors at generation time, but the warnings are overeager. If no return type is specified, the scanning method will be declared as returning values of class Yytoken. Class options and user class code These options regard name, constructor, API, and related parts of the generated scanner class.

Macros however remain just abbreviations of the regular expressions they represent. Lexical states are declared and used as Java int constants in the generated class under the same name as they are used in the specification.

JLex: A Lexical Analyzer Generator for Java(TM)

Note that with negation and union you also have by applying DeMorgan intersection and set difference: After each action some overhead for setting up the internal state of the scanner is necessary. It costs multiple additional comparisons per input character and the matched text has to be re-scanned for counting. They will be read again in the next call of the scanning method. Working with JFlex – an example runs through an example specification and explains how it works.


From this specification JFlex generates a. Reader from which the input is read. From a software engineering point of view however, there is no excuse for writing a scanner by hand since this task takes more time, is more difficult and therefore more error prone than writing a compact, readable and easy to change lexical specification. A JLex specification is well formed, when it generates a working scanner with JLex doesn’t contain the unescaped characters!

The references Aho, Sethi, and Ullman and Appel provide a good introduction.

JLex: A Lexical Analyzer Generator for Java(TM)

Therefore it should also be the most convenient one. If an expression is matched, the corresponding action is executed. The last part of the second section in our lexical specification is a lexical state declaration: To demonstrate how a lexical specification with JFlex looks like, this section presents a part of jled specification for the Java language.

Symbol to report error positions more conveniently for the user. Both specifications adhere to the Java Language Specification [ 7 ]. Causes the specified exceptions to be declared msnual the throws clause of the constructor. Please note that in Java strings are unchangeable, i.

Jlrx also consumes memory proportional to the size of the matched input for r1 r2. Adds the specified argument to the constructors of the generated scanner. EOF User values and code to be executed at the end of file can be defined using these directives: ISO is undefined there. Column counting could also be included in actions.

If you don’t have it, you can use rpm –checksig –nopgp jflex Things may break when you produce a text file on platform X and consume maual on a different platform Y. To mahual this requirement, if an implementation provides for case-insensitive matching, then it shall provide at least the simple, default Unicode case-insensitive matching, and specify which properties are closed and which are not.

Identifier matches each string that starts with a character of class jletter followed by zero or more characters of class jletterdigit. The decimal integer n must be positive. The definitions section of a flex specification is quite similar to the options and declarations part of JFlex specs. All characters of jlez have to be read again for the next matching process. It consists of a set of options, code that is included inside the generated scanner class, lexical states and macro declarations.


The matched manuxl of the input is referred to by yytext and appended to the content of the string literal parsed so far.

The lookahead algorithm itself works as advertised, but JFlex will report a large number of lookahead expressions as unsafe although they are safe. If more than one end of file code directive is present, the code will be concatenated in order of appearance in the specification.

It is in time complexity proportional to the size of the expanded DFA table, and it is static, i. Because we do not yet return a value to the parser, our scanner proceeds immediately. It works, but error reporting can be strange if a syntax error occurs on the last manjal in the included file.

The action code will only be executed when the end of file is read and the scanner is currently in one of the lexical states listed in StateList. State declarations State declarations have the following from: To make things work correctly, you still have to know where you are and how to map byte values to Unicode characters and vice versa, but the important thing is, that this mapping is at least maual you can map Kanji characters mankal Unicode, but you cannot map them to ASCII or iso-latin This enables an easy way to specify a scanner for a language with case insensitive keywords.

JFlex User’s Manual

If there jleex more than one regular expression that matches the longest portion of input i. With input “averylongjoke” the scanner has to read all charcters up to ‘j’ to decide that rule.

It generates a program a lexer that reads input, matches the input against the regular expressions in the spec file, and runs the corresponding action if a regular expression matched.

It was however possible to further improve the performance of generated scanners using JFlex. When in doubt or when requirements are not or not yet fixed: