Phylum Sipuncula In: Atkinson LJ and Sink KJ (eds). Field Guide to the Ofshore Marine Invertebrates of South Africa,. Malachite Marketing and Media, Pretoria. Sipuncula is a clade of unsegmented, coelomate marine worms. . Sipuncula, however, with sipunculans as an annelid ingroup, other. Phylum Sipuncula. Class Phascolosomatidea. Order Aspidosiphoniformes. Family Aspidosiphonidae. Aspidosiphon Diesing, Aspidosiphon elegans.

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This page was last edited on 6 Decemberat Trunk length varies from a few millimeters to sipuncuoa Some evidence points towards their involvement in ultrafiltration.

Retrieved from ” https: Brachiopoda lamp shells Phoronida horseshoe worms.

Phylum Sipuncula

Swimming has only been reported in Sipunculus and consists of non-directional thrashing of the trunk. Larval development and metamorphosis in Sipuncula. Cycliophora Symbion Annelida ringed worms. Longitudinal and circular body wall musculature in bands. The mouth, at the anterior end of the introvert, is surrounded by an array of tentacles in the Sipun-culidea.

List of bilaterial animal orders. Numerous papillae may be present on the trunk and introvert. The paleozoic Hyolitha has a mix of attributes of sipunculans and mollusks, suggesting a close phylogenetic relationship with both. A spindle muscle runs through the gut coil. Others inhabit empty mollusk shells, polychaete tubes, foraminiferan tests, or barnacles.

Sipuncula – Wikipedia

This is usually prepared by cleaning the muscle and soaking it in vinegar and spices in a style similar to ceviche. Because of their long-lived larval stages, many sipuncu-lan species seem to be very widespread.


A rectal caecum, present in most species, is a blind ending sac at the transition between intestine and rectum with unknown function. The worms stay submerged in the sea bed between 10 and 18 hours a day and are sensitive to salinity, and thus not commonly found near estuaries. A number of species bore into dead or, more rarely, live coral or other soft rocks, while one species even bores into a whale skull.

Fluid transport and gas exchange are instead accomplished by the coelomwhich contains the respiratory pigment haemerythrinand the tentacular system. The intestine is characteristically U-shaped, with the ascending and descending branches coiled around each other in a double helix.

The ciliated urn cells may also be attached to the peritoneum and fipum in waste filtering from the interstitial fluid. Sipunclans do not have a vascular blood system. Golfingia is now the genus name and Sipuncula the name of the phylum to which these worms belong.

The planktotrophic pelagosphera lasts up to six months in the water column before settling. Taken in CebuPhilippines. Specific distribution map not available.

Phylum Sipuncula

Arthropoda arthropods Tardigrada waterbears. The body wall musculature is composed of an outer layer of longitudinal and an inner layer of circular muscles. Sipuncula Rafinesque At the termination of the gut coil, the rectum emerges and ends in the anus. More recent Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil burrows have wipuncula been attributed to sipunculan worms. Phylogenetic analyses based on 79 ribosomal proteins indicated a position of Sipuncula within Annelida.


It is a common meal for fisherfolk and is a sought-after but not so common appetizer in city restaurants. Since the s, there is general agreement that sipunculans are protostomes and closely related to annelids and mollusks, but their exact position still remains unresolved. In the family Themistidae the tentacles forms a crown, as the members of this group are specialized filter feedersunlike the other sipunculans which are deposit feeders.

Both asexual and sexual reproduction can be found in sipunculans, although asexual reproduction is uncommon. They are found especially below the surface on tidal flats.

Cilum Quatrefages erected the group Gephyrea, which he considered an intermediate between worms and holothurians and which also contained echiurans, sternaspids, and priapulids.

Two nephridia are present, except in the genera Phasco-lion and Onchnesoma, which have only a single nephridium. The digestive tract of sipunculans starts with the esophagus, located between the introvert retractor muscles.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. The sipunculan body is divided into trunk and retractable introvert.

In some species, there are simple light-sensitive ocelli associated with the brain.