Henri Bergson Hide. French philosopher. Henri Bergson jpg. Wikipedia-logo- Michał Bergson. Award received. Nobel Prize in. Henri Bergson was born in Paris in and died there in His mother was Anglo-Irish and his father Polish and an accomplished musician. Bergson uses. Henri Bergson’s doctoral thesis was published in France in , and much later translated into English () under the title Time and Free Will. It contained.

Author: Arashibei Kajishicage
Country: Switzerland
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Art
Published (Last): 13 January 2014
Pages: 347
PDF File Size: 9.16 Mb
ePub File Size: 5.44 Mb
ISBN: 904-4-88902-718-5
Downloads: 66746
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Fautaur

Henri Bergson – Wikipedia

Thus, any positive definition of freedom will ensure the victory of determinism. In the war, Bergson saw the conflict of Mind and Matter, or rather of Life and Mechanism; and thus he shows us the central idea of his own philosophy in action.

Freedom is therefore a fact, and among the facts which we observe there is none clearer. Influence of neo-Kantian thought View More. One of our deepest needs is to find and express that vital creative spark that betgson somewhere in all of us. As we saw in the discussion of method above, Bergson always makes a differentiation within a mixture. Duration, as defined by Bergson, then is a unity and a multiplicity, but, being mobile, it cannot be grasped through immobile concepts.

Category:Henri Bergson – Wikimedia Commons

Those who explicitly criticized Bergson, either in published articles or in letters, included Bertrand Russell [52] George Santayanaani G. Reversibility was popular in the late nineteenth century as a qnri of the second law of thermodynamics, especially the derivation of this law from statistical mechanics by Ludwig Boltzmann.

Through his father, a talented musician, Bergson was descended from a rich Polish Jewish family—the sons of Berek, or Berek-son, from which the name Bergson is derived. According to Einstein, both—that is, all frames of references should be treated as equal. We have alluded to Kant on several occasions, but, let us conclude by examining Bergson’s explicit criticism of Kant’s moral philosophy.

How could an idea categorically demand its own realization? But to extend this parallelism to the series themselves in their totality is to settle a priori the problem of freedom. The successive series of bifurcations and differentiations that life undergoes organize itself into two great opposite tendencies, namely, instinct and intelligence.

Notice that Freud and Breuer’s Studies on Hysteria did not appear until Intelligence ordinarily concerns itself with things, meaning by that, with the static, and makes of change an accident which is supposedly superadded.

More specifically then, Bergson’s project in Creative Evolution is to offer a philosophy capable of accounting both for the continuity of all living beings—as creatures—and for the discontinuity implied in the evolutionary quality of this creation.

The reasons were surely varied and complex, but the culprit mentioned that evening was clear: This association of creative emotions with mystical experience means that, for Bergson, dynamic religion is mystical. Unlike instinct, human intelligence is therefore unable to attain to the essence of life in its duration.


The first is that of two spools, with a tape running between them, one spool unwinding the tape, the other winding it up. He began in this, as in each of his books, with a particular problem, which he analyzed by first determining the empirical observed facts that are known about it according to the best and most up-to-date scientific opinion.

His answer consists in showing that it is not a matter of order versus disorder, but rather of one order in relation to another.

Our inner life will still depend upon ourselves up to a certain point; but, to an outside observer, there will be nothing to distinguish our activity from absolute automatism.

Kastner Stuart Kauffman Martin J. Such being the case, is there not much to be said for the hypothesis of a conscious force or free will, which, subject to the action of time and storing up duration, may thereby escape the law of the conservation of energy [i. He was one of the most celebrated philosophers of the century, widely known for espousing a theory of time that explained what clocks did not: This mere beginning of an experimental proof is quite enough for the man who, for psychological reasons, is already convinced that our conscious states are the necessary outcome of the circumstances under which they happen.

He believed that the failure to take into account the real time underlying the whole process results in the failure to appreciate the uniqueness of life. But he never actually became a Catholic: There is no hidden power in matter; matter is only images.

Bergson regarded planning beforehand for the future as impossible, since time itself unravels unforeseen possibilities. The public attended his open courses in large numbers.

If we remain with the telescope image, we ahri see that the images of the constellation must be narrowed, brought down the tube so that they will fit into my eye. As we are not accustomed to observe ourselves directly, but perceive ourselves through forms borrowed from the external world, we are led to believe that real andi, the duration lived by consciousness, is the same as the duration which glides over the inert atoms without penetrating and altering them.

To do this, intuition in Bergson’s sense must ani us above the divisions of the different schools of philosophy like rationalism and empiricism or idealism and realism. Thus Bergson’s philosophy—in principle open and nonsystematic—was easily borrowed piecemeal and altered by enthusiastic admirers”.

Several Hindu authors have found parallels to Hindu philosophy in Bergson’s thought.

The simple, dualistic perspective on time advocated by Einstein appalled Bergson. Gide even went so far as to say that future historians will overestimate Bergson’s influence on art and philosophy just because he was the self-appointed spokesman for “the spirit of the age”.


Henri Bergson

Comprehensive analytic knowledge then consists in reconstruction or re-composition of a thing by means of synthesizing the perspectives. From this, Bergson deduces not only the cognitive structure and the scientific history of intelligence which he examines in detailbut also its limitations.

For Bergson, the notion of life mixes together two opposite senses, which must be differentiated and then led into a genuine unity. Like the descriptions of intuition, this passage describes how we can resolve the images of matter into mobile vibrations. This synthesis, while helping us satisfy needs, never gives us the thing itself; it only gives us a general concept of things.

Here we see that Bergson has not only tried to break with Kant, but also with Parmenides’s philosophy of the same. bwrgson

This Philosopher Helped Ensure There Was No Nobel for Relativity

Bergson was born in Paris on October 18, ; he was the second of anrk children of a Polish Father and English mother; both of his parents were Jewish. We shall thus be brought back to the idea of an equivalence between duration and its spatial symbol; and by pressing the definition of freedom which we have laid down, we shall once more get determinism out of it.

Only that could explain why we attributed to clocks such power: Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of But let us admit that the absurdity is a mere appearance, and that the impossibility for living beings to come back to the past is simply owing to the fact berrgson the physico-chemical phenomena which take place in living bodies, bergsn infinitely complex, have no chance of ever occurring again all at the same time: Instead of fearing time bergsno thinking of it as an endless space that has to be filled in, we would value it more and make sure we had time to express our own particular form of creativity, time to dream, time to do nothing in particular, to have a fallow period, time to sit silently, or walk mindfully.

Turning back from the habitual use of intelligence for needs, intuition, as we can see now, places us above or below representations.

While the relationship between consciousness and matter instantiated in the instinct of animals is sufficient and well adapted to their survival from the point of view of the specieshumans are not adequately equipped in this respect; hence the necessity of something like intelligence, defined by the ability to make tools.